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Подборки ссылок по ДМ на статьи из PubMed

6.Int Nurs Rev. 2012 Jun;59(2):259-65. doi: 10.1111/j.1466-7657.2011.00969.x. Epub 2012 Feb 9.

Translation and validation of two evidence-based nursing practice instruments.
Thorsteinsson HS.

Source
Department Head, Department of Nursing Professional Practice Development, Landspitali University Hospital PhD student, Faculty of Nursing, University of Iceland, Eirberg, Reykjavík, Iceland.



Abstract
THORSTEINSSON H.S. (2012) Translation and validation of two evidence-based nursing practice instruments. International Nursing Review59, 259-265 Background:  Using existing instruments when assessing nurses' readiness for evidence-based practice facilitates comparison of research findings and adds to nursing knowledge in a global context. Aim:  The study aims to: (1) translate the Information Literacy for Evidence Based Nursing Practice(©) (ILNP(©) ) questionnaire and the Evidence-based Practice Beliefs Scale(©) (EBP Beliefs Scale(©) ), (2) assess their appropriateness for use in Iceland, and 3) estimate the psychometric properties of the translated EBP Beliefs Scale [Icelandic-EBP Beliefs Scale (I-EBP Beliefs Scale)]. Methods:  The instruments were evaluated for appropriateness and relevancy before translation, and the ILNP(©) was modified to fit the Icelandic context. Translation followed recommended approaches, including back-translation. Pilot testing of both instruments ensued. A random sample of 540 nurses answered and returned the questionnaires. Reliability and validity of the I-EBP Beliefs Scale were tested on 471 complete I-EBP Beliefs Scale. Data were collected in 2007. Results:  The translated instruments demonstrated clarity and conciseness; however, the ILNP(©) needed to be further modified. For the I-EBP Beliefs Scale, Cronbach's α was 0.86 and Spearman-Brown r was 0.87. Principal components analysis supported the I-EBP Beliefs Scale's construct validity and unidimensional structure. Criterion validity was established by known-groups comparison (t-tests and one-way analyses of variance). Conclusions:  The ILNP(©) and the EBP Beliefs Scale(©) can be used in contexts other than those for which they were developed. The I-EBP Scale is a psychometrically sound instrument and its performance supports the validity of the original scale. The instruments can be used to gather valuable information about nurses' readiness for evidence-based practice.
© 2012 The Author. International Nursing Review © 2012 International Council of Nurses.
PMID: 22591099 [PubMed - in process]
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7.Prev Med. 2012 May;54 Suppl:S1-3.

Aging medicine: Not evidence-based medicine yet.
Morabia A, Costanza MC.

Source
Center for the Biology of Natural Systems, E Remsen Hall, Queens College - The City University of New York, 65-30 Kissena Blvd., Flushing, NY 11367, USA.
PMID: 22579239 [PubMed - in process]
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8.Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2012 May 15. [Epub ahead of print]

Evidence-Based Medicine in Otolaryngology, Part 3: Everyday Probabilities: Diagnostic Tests with Binary Results.
Shin JJ, Stinnett S, Page J, Randolph GW.

Source
Division of Otolaryngology, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.



Abstract
Recent studies have demonstrated that the majority of physicians cannot accurately determine the predictive values of diagnostic tests. Physicians must understand the predictive probabilities associated with diagnostic testing in order to convey accurate information to patients, a key aspect of evidence-based practice. While sensitivity and specificity are widely understood, predictive values require a further understanding of conditional probabilities, pretest probabilities, and the prevalence of disease. Therefore, this third installment of the series "Evidence-Based Medicine in Otolaryngology" focuses on understanding the probabilities needed to accurately convey the results of dichotomous diagnostic tests in everyday practice.
PMID: 22588733 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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9.Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2012 May;15(3):303-9.

Malnutrition screening tools for hospitalized children.
Hartman C, Shamir R, Hecht C, Koletzko B.

Source
aInstitute of Gastroenterology, Nutrition and Liver Diseases, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel, Clalit Health Services, Petach Tikva, Israel bDivision of Metabolic and Nutritional Medicine, Dr von Hauner Children's Hospital, Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Munich, Germany.



Abstract

PURPOSE OF REVIEW:
Malnutrition is highly prevalent in hospitalized children and has been associated with relevant clinical outcomes. The scope of this review is to describe the five screening tools and the recent European Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ESPEN) research project aimed at establishing agreed, evidence-based criteria for malnutrition and screening tools for its diagnosis in hospitalized children.

RECENT FINDINGS:
Five nutrition screening tools have recently been developed to identify the risk of malnutrition in hospitalized children. These tools have been tested to a limited extent by their authors in the original published studies but have not been validated by other independent studies. So far, such screening tools have not been established widely as part of standard pediatric care.

SUMMARY:
Although nutrition screening and assessment are recommended by European Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition and the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition and are often accepted to be required by healthcare facilities, there is no standardized approach to nutritional screening for pediatric inpatients. The near future will provide us with comparative data on the existing tools which may contribute to delineating a standard for useful nutrition screening in pediatrics.
PMID: 22588189 [PubMed - in process]
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10.Syst Rev. 2012 Feb 21;1(1):15.

A Web-based archive of systematic review data.
Ip S, Hadar N, Keefe S, Parkin C, Iovin R, Balk EM, Lau J.

Source
Tufts Evidence-based Practice Center, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA 02111, USA. jlau1@tuftsmedicalcenter.org.



Abstract
ABSTRACT: Systematic reviews have become increasingly critical to informing healthcare policy; however, they remain a time-consuming and labor-intensive activity. The extraction of data from constituent studies comprises a significant portion of this effort, an activity which is often needlessly duplicated, such as when attempting to update a previously conducted review or in reviews of overlapping topics.In order to address these inefficiencies, and to improve the speed and quality of healthcare policy- and decision-making, we have initiated the development of the Systematic Review Data Repository, an open collaborative Web-based repository of systematic review data. As envisioned, this resource would serve as both a central archive and data extraction tool, shared among and freely accessible to organizations producing systematic reviews worldwide. A suite of easy-to-use software tools with a Web frontend would enable researchers to seamlessly search for and incorporate previously deposited data into their own reviews, as well as contribute their own.In developing this resource, we identified a number of technical and non-technical challenges, as well as devised a number of potential solutions, including proposals for systems and software tools to assure data quality, stratify and control user access effectively and flexibly accommodate all manner of study data, as well as means by which to govern and foster adoption of this new resource.Herein we provide an account of the rationale and development of the Systematic Review Data Repository thus far, as well as outline its future trajectory.

PMCID: PMC3351737Free PMC Article
PMID: 22588052 [PubMed - in process]
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Подборки ссылок по ДМ на статьи из PubMed

1.BMJ. 2012 May 17;344:e3223. doi: 10.1136/bmj.e3223.

The scatter of research: cross sectional comparison of randomised trials and systematic reviews across specialties.
Hoffmann T, Erueti C, Thorning S, Glasziou P.

Source
Centre for Research in Evidence-Based Practice, Faculty of Health Sciences and Medicine, Bond University, 4229 Qld, Australia.



Abstract

OBJECTIVE:
To estimate the degree of scatter of reports of randomised trials and systematic reviews, and how the scatter differs among medical specialties and subspecialties.

DESIGN:
Cross sectional analysis.

DATA SOURCE:
PubMed for all disease relevant randomised trials and systematic reviews published in 2009.

STUDY SELECTION:
Randomised trials and systematic reviews of the nine diseases or disorders with the highest burden of disease, and the broader category of disease to which each belonged.

RESULTS:
The scatter across journals varied considerably among specialties and subspecialties: otolaryngology had the least scatter (363 trials across 167 journals) and neurology the most (2770 trials across 896 journals). In only three subspecialties (lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hearing loss) were 10 or fewer journals needed to locate 50% of trials. The scatter was less for systematic reviews: hearing loss had the least scatter (10 reviews across nine journals) and cancer the most (670 reviews across 279 journals). For some specialties and subspecialties the papers were concentrated in specialty journals; whereas for others, few of the top 10 journals were a specialty journal for that area. Generally, little overlap occurred between the top 10 journals publishing trials and those publishing systematic reviews. The number of journals required to find all trials or reviews was highly correlated (r=0.97) with the number of papers for each specialty/subspecialty.

CONCLUSIONS:
Publication rates of speciality relevant trials vary widely, from one to seven trials per day, and are scattered across hundreds of general and specialty journals. Although systematic reviews reduce the extent of scatter, they are still widely scattered and mostly in different journals to those of randomised trials. Personal subscriptions to journals, which are insufficient for keeping up to date with knowledge, need to be supplemented by other methods such as journal scanning services or systems that cover sufficient journals and filter articles for quality and relevance. Few current systems seem adequate.

Free Article
PMID: 22597353 [PubMed - in process]
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2.Nurse Educ Today. 2012 May 15. [Epub ahead of print]

Educating tomorrow's clinical researchers: A review of research preparation in undergraduate education.
Badger FJ, Daly W, Clifford C.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:
One large health region in England was experiencing difficulties in recruiting to clinical research posts which required registered nurse or allied health professional skills.

OBJECTIVES:
Pre-registration preparation may influence practitioners' career choices and the study reviewed the research content in pre-registration nurse/AHP degree level programmes in the region to i) describe key features of the modules, and ii) determine the extent to which clinical research featured.

DESIGN AND SETTINGS:
There are eight universities in the region. We reviewed and analysed 46 research and evidence-based practice module guides from relevant pre-registration degree level programmes. Documentary analysis was used and the findings were reviewed by the project group.

RESULTS:
Modules aimed to produce practitioners who were aware of the principles of evidence based practice, and who could locate and evaluate research findings. There was some exposure to clinical research, though this was largely indirect, through considering research findings. Therapy students were more likely than nursing students to conduct a small clinical study for their final year assignment.

CONCLUSIONS:
Pre-registration programmes focused on producing practitioners who were competent users of research evidence to inform practice, rather than clinical researchers, and this was inevitably the focus of the research modules. However, feasible opportunities for increasing students' exposure to clinical research were identified.
Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
PMID: 22595611 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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3.
Integration of Herbal Medicine into Evidence-Based Clinical Practice: Current Status and Issues.

Authors
Zhang AL, Changli  [цензура] C, Fong HHS.



Editors
In: Benzie IFF, Wachtel-Galor S, editors.



Source
Herbal Medicine: Biomolecular and Clinical Aspects. 2nd edition. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press; 2011. Chapter 22.



Excerpt
For decades, the People’s Republic of China has touted a system of medical education in which its modern medicine practitioners have been required to receive some formal training in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), so that they are aware of suitable approaches in TCM during their practice of Western medicines. However, documentation of its successful integration in clinical practice is lacking (Giordano, Garcia, and Strickland 2004). In Western countries, such as the United States, Australia, Canada, and members of the European Union, the popular use of herbal medicine in the form of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) or phytomedicine in the last two to three decades has led to a multinational, multibillion dollar industry, professional and trade organizations, national and international practice and research conferences, establishment of specialized integrated medicine practices and clinics in pain management and adjunctive cancer therapy, incorporation of CAM courses in conventional medical colleges, introduction of CAM degree-level education programs, and establishment of research funding agencies such as the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM; http://nccam.nih.gov/), and the Australian National Institute of Complementary Medicine (NICM; http://www.nicm.edu.au). As a result of these developments, the issue of integration of CAM medicine, including herbal preparations, into modern medicine has been the subject of ongoing international discussions in the last few years (Fong 2002; Barrett 2003; Ruggle 2005; Boyd 2007; Geffen 2007; Evans 2008; Grimaldi 2008; Shang et al. 2008; Jobst 2009; Joos, Musselmann, and Szecsenyl 2009). However, proof of efficacy or safety for the vast majority of herbal medicine has not been fully established through an evidence-based approach. Further, other issues, such as scientific, cultural, educational, economical, and legal, need to be addressed. In this chapter, we examine the current status and major scientific issues or factors that affect the integration of herbal medicine into evidence-based medical therapy.
Copyright © 2011 by Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Books & Documents
PMID: 22593929 [PubMed]
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4.Comput Inform Nurs. 2012 May 15. [Epub ahead of print]

Student Outcomes of Distance Learning in Nursing Education: An Integrative Review.
Patterson BJ, Krouse AM, Roy L.

Source
Author Affiliations: School of Nursing, Barbara and Anne Widener University (Drs Patterson and Krouse), Chester; and School of Nursing, Linda Gywnedd Mercy College (Ms Roy), Gwynedd Valley, PA.



Abstract
Distance learning offers a distinctive environment to educate nursing students. While there is a significant body of evidence in the literature related to course, program, and faculty outcomes of distance education, little attention has been given by researchers to evaluate student outcomes, with the exception of student satisfaction. There is a need to evaluate and translate findings related to student outcomes in distance learning into educational practice. Integrative reviews offer one strategy to contribute to evidence-based teaching practice initiatives. A search of available published qualitative and quantitative research on student outcomes of distance learning from 1999 to 2009 was conducted using a number of databases. Astin's Input-Environment-Output conceptual model provided a framework for this review. Thirty-three studies met the inclusion criteria. Both cognitive and affective student outcomes emerged. The cognitive outcomes were student learning, learning process, and technology proficiency. Affective outcomes included personal and professional growth, satisfaction, and connectedness. Implications, recommendations, and future research are discussed.
PMID: 22592452 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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5.Implement Sci. 2012 May 16;7(1):44. [Epub ahead of print]

Modeling technology innovation: How science, engineering, and industry methods can combine to generate beneficial socioeconomic impacts.
Stone VI, Lane JP.

Abstract
ABSTRACT:

BACKGROUND:
Government-sponsored science, technology, and innovation (STI) programs support the socioeconomic aspects of public policies, in addition to expanding the knowledge base. For example, beneficial healthcare services and devices are expected to result from investments in research and development (R&D) programs, which assume a causal link to commercial innovation. Such programs are increasingly held accountable for evidence of impact--that is, innovative goods and services resulting from R&D activity. However, the absence of comprehensive models and metrics skews evidence gathering toward bibliometrics about research outputs (published discoveries), with less focus on transfer metrics about development outputs (patented prototypes) and almost none on econometrics related to production outputs (commercial innovations). This disparity is particularly problematic for the expressed intent of such programs, as most measurable socioeconomic benefits result from the last category of outputs.

METHODS:
This paper proposes a conceptual framework integrating all three knowledge-generating methods into a logic model, useful for planning, obtaining, and measuring the intended beneficial impacts through the implementation of knowledge in practice. Additionally, the integration of the Context-Input-Process-Product (CIPP) model of evaluation proactively builds relevance into STI policies and programs while sustaining rigor.

RESULTS:
The resulting logic model framework explicitly traces the progress of knowledge from inputs, following it through the three knowledge-generating processes and their respective knowledge outputs (discovery, invention, innovation), as it generates the intended sociobeneficial impacts. It is a hybrid model for generating technology-based innovations, where best practices in new product development merge with a widely accepted knowledgetranslation approach. Given the emphasis on evidence-based practice in the medical and health fields and "bench to bedside" expectations for knowledge transfer, sponsors and grantees alike should find the model useful for planning, implementing, and evaluating innovation processes.

CONCLUSIONS:
High-cost/high-risk industries like healthcare require the market deployment of technologybased innovations to improve domestic society in a global economy. An appropriate balance of relevance and rigor in research, development, and production is crucial to optimize the return on public investment in such programs. The technology-innovation process needs a comprehensive operational model to effectively allocate public funds and thereby deliberately and systematically accomplish socioeconomic benefits.

Free Article
Подборки ссылок по ДМ на статьи из PubMed
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PubMed
Как смотрите насчет прямой ссылки на пабмед с 1й страницы форума?
Вакцинация сотрудников, Обязаны ли сотрудники выполнять график прививок?
Федеральный закон от 17 сентября 1998 г. N 157-ФЗ Об иммунопрофилактике инфекционных болезней

Статья 5. Права и обязанности граждан при осуществлении иммунопрофилактики
1. Граждане при осуществлении иммунопрофилактики имеют право на:
...отказ от профилактических прививок.
2. Отсутствие профилактических прививок влечет:
запрет для граждан на выезд в страны, пребывание в которых в соответствии с международными медико-санитарными правилами либо международными договорами Российской Федерации требует конкретных профилактических прививок;
временный отказ в приеме граждан в образовательные и оздоровительные учреждения в случае возникновения массовых инфекционных заболеваний или при угрозе возникновения эпидемий;
отказ в приеме граждан на работы или отстранение граждан от работ, выполнение которых связано с высоким риском заболевания инфекционными болезнями.
Перечень работ, выполнение которых связано с высоким риском заболевания инфекционными болезнями и требует обязательного проведения профилактических прививок, устанавливается уполномоченным Правительством Российской Федерации федеральным органом исполнительной власти.

Постановление Правительства РФ от 15 июля 1999 г. N 825Об утверждении перечня работ, выполнение которых связано с высоким риском заболевания инфекционными болезнями и требует обязательного проведения профилактических прививок
1. Сельскохозяйственные, гидромелиоративные, строительные и другие работы по выемке и перемещению грунта, заготовительные, промысловые, геологические, изыскательские, экспедиционные, дератизационные и дезинсекционные работы на территориях, неблагополучных по инфекциям, общим для человека и животных.
2. Работы по лесозаготовке, расчистке и благоустройству леса, зон оздоровления и отдыха населения на территориях, неблагополучных по инфекциям, общим для человека и животных.
3. Работы в организациях по заготовке, хранению, обработке сырья и продуктов животноводства, полученных из хозяйств, неблагополучных по инфекциям, общим для человека и животных.
4. Работы по заготовке, хранению и переработке сельскохозяйственной продукции на территориях, неблагополучных по инфекциям, общим для человека и животных.
5. Работы по убою скота, больного инфекциями, общими для человека и животных, заготовке и переработке полученных от него мяса и мясопродуктов.
6. Работы, связанные с уходом за животными и обслуживанием животноводческих объектов в животноводческих хозяйствах, неблагополучных по инфекциям, общим для человека и животных.
7. Работы по отлову и содержанию безнадзорных животных.
8. Работы по обслуживанию канализационных сооружений, оборудования и сетей.
9. Работы с больными инфекционными заболеваниями.
10. Работы с живыми культурами возбудителей инфекционных заболеваний.
11. Работы с кровью и биологическими жидкостями человека.
12. Работы во всех типах и видах образовательных учреждений.

Таким образом, от прививок отказаться может любой, но тогда не имеет права работать по вышеуказанным работам.
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